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Journal Articles

Minocycline (Minocin) Fact Sheet. American College of Rheumatology.

Tetracyclines: Nonantibiotic properties and their clinical implications. J Am Acad Dermatol, 2006 Feb;54(2):258-65.

Tetracycline Antibiotics for Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [abstract]. The 2009 ACR/ARHP Annual Scientific Meeting Philadelphia October 16-21, 2009; Adwan, M. H. Q., Arthritis Rheum 2009;60 Suppl 10 :406 DOI: 10.1002/art.25489.

Although the above abstract is no longer available online, the following is quoted information that was contained in the original abstract describing the many properties of tetracycline antibiotics:

Tetracycline antibiotics have been used in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since the late 1940s. Animal and in vitro studies have shown them to modify the inflammatory process in various ways unrelated to their antimicrobial activities. These include effects on matrix metalloproteinases, Nitric oxide, phospholipase A2, inflammatory cytokines, immunomodulatory Uand anti-oxidant effect as well as effects on angiogenesis, apoptosis, MAP kinases, TGF beta and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

Minocycline: far beyond an antibiotic. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 May;169(2):337-52. doi: 10.1111/bph.12139.

Mycoplasma and other Intracellular Bacterial Infections in Rheumatic Diseases: Comorbid Condition or Cause? Nicolson G.L., Open J. Trop. Med. 2017; 1: 016-017.

Infection in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy. Chris Chalk; November 28, 2017; J Rheumatology Advisor.