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What infections have been associated with scleroderma and its various forms?

Infections (General)

Early research authored by dermatologist, Alan Cantwell M.D., whose histologic examination of scleroderma skin biopsies revealed acid-fast bacterial forms, and… Read more »


Since the isolation of pleuropneumoniae-like organisms (PPO) resembling mycoplasma from an ovarian cyst in a patient with scleroderma (Brown 1955), few studies have… Read more »

Lyme Disease

Case studies and reviews of Lyme disease describing how this vector-borne infection manifests in some patients as scleroderma in its… Read more »

Helicobacter Pylori

Large scale clinical and individual case studies discuss a potential relationship between the stomach infection, Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of… Read more »

Toxoplasma Gondii

Large scale clinical and individual case studies implicating the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in the pathogenesis and expression of scleroderma. Toxoplasmosis… Read more »

What antibiotics have been used to treat scleroderma and its various forms?


Ciprofloxacin, in the fluoroquinlolone class of antibiotics, has been studied for its safety and effectiveness as an anti-fibrotic medication for lung and skin fibrosis… Read more »

Flagyl (Metronidazole)

Flagyl is in the nitroimidazole class of antibiotics and has been used successfully to treat cases of intestinal pseudo-obstruction, a potential complication in… Read more »


The following case study is reflective of a number of localized scleroderma anecdotal reports received by Road Back Foundation from… Read more »

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